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Command-Line Reference

After installing the turbo package (or cloning a starter), you can start using Turborepo's command line interface (CLI) turbo to do all kinds of awesomeness in your monorepo.

Option Syntax

Options can be passed to turbo in different ways. Options that require a value can be passed with an equals sign:

--opt=<value>
--opt="<value with a space>"

They can also be passed with a space between:

--opt value
--opt "value with a space"

Boolean options can be enabled as follows:

# To pass true
--opt
 
# To pass false
--opt=false

Global Arguments

The following flags apply to all commands.

--color

Forces the use of color even when the output stream is not considered to be a TTY terminal. This can be used to enable turbo's color output for CI runners such as Github Actions which have support for rendering color in their log output.

turbo run build --color

Alternatively, you can also enable color using the FORCE_COLOR environment variable (borrowed from the supports-color nodejs package). Note that this may also enable additional colored output from the actual tasks themselves if they use supports-color to determine whether or not to output with colored output.

declare -x FORCE_COLOR=1
turbo run build

--no-color

Suppresses the use of color in the output when running turbo in an interactive / TTY session.

turbo run build --no-color

Alternatively, you can also suppress color using the FORCE_COLOR environment variable (borrowed from the supports-color nodejs package).

declare -x FORCE_COLOR=0
turbo run build

turbo run <task>

Run npm scripts across all workspaces in specified scope. Tasks must be specified in your pipeline configuration.

turbo run <task1> <task2> [options] [-- <args passed to task1 and task2>]

turbo can run multiple tasks, and any arguments following -- will be passed through to the tasks to be executed. Note that these additional arguments will not be passed to any additional tasks that are run due to dependencies from the pipeline configuration.

Options

--cache-dir

type: string

Defaults to ./node_modules/.cache/turbo. Specify local filesystem cache directory. Be sure to add this folder to your .gitignore if you change it from the default.

turbo run build --cache-dir="./my-cache"

--concurrency

type: number | string

Defaults to 10. Set/limit the max concurrency of task execution. This must be an integer greater than or equal to 1 or a percentage value like 50%. Use 1 to force serial (i.e. one task at a time) execution. Use 100% to use all available logical processors. This option is ignored if the --parallel flag is also passed.

turbo run build --concurrency=50%
turbo run test --concurrency=1

--continue

Defaults to false. This flag tells turbo whether or not to continue with execution in the presence of an error (i.e. non-zero exit code from a task). By default, specifying the --parallel flag will automatically set --continue to true unless explicitly set to false. When --continue is true, turbo will exit with the highest exit code value encountered during execution.

turbo run build --continue

--cwd

Set the working directory of the command.

turbo run build --cwd=./somewhere/else

--deps

--deps is deprecated in 1.2.x. Please use --filter instead.

Defaults to true. Include dependent workspace consumers in the execution.

turbo run build --deps
turbo run build --no-deps

Example

Let's say you have workspaces A, B, C, and D where A depends on B and C depends on D. You run turbo run build for the first time and everything is built and cached. Then, you change a line of code in B. With the --deps flag on, running turbo run build will execute build in B and then A, but not in C and D because they are not impacted by the change. If you were to run turbo run build --no-deps instead, turbo will only run build in B.

--dry / --dry-run

Instead of executing tasks, display details about the affected workspaces and tasks that would be run. Specify --dry=json to get the output in JSON format.

Task details include:

  • task: The name of the task to be executed
  • package: The workspace in which to run the task
  • hash: The hash of the task, used for caching
  • directory: The directory where the task will be run
  • command: The actual command used to run the task
  • outputs: Location of outputs from the task that will cached
  • logFile: Location of the log file for the task run
  • dependencies: Tasks that must run before this task
  • dependents: Tasks that must be run after this task

--filter

type: string[]

Specify combinations of workspaces, directories, and git commits to act as entrypoints for execution.

Multiple filters can be combined to select distinct sets of targets. Additionally, filters can also exclude targets. A target that matches any filter and is not explicitly excluded will be in the final entrypoint selection.

For more detailed information about the --filter flag and filtering, refer to the dedicated page in our documentation

turbo run build --filter=my-pkg
turbo run test --filter=...^@scope/my-lib
turbo run build --filter=./apps/* --filter=!./apps/admin

--graph

This command will generate an svg, png, jpg, pdf, json, html, or other supported output formats of the current task graph. The output file format defaults to jpg, but can be controlled by specifying the filename's extension.

If Graphviz is not installed, or no filename is provided, this command prints the dot graph to stdout.

turbo run build --graph
turbo run build test lint --graph=my-graph.svg
turbo run build test lint --graph=my-json-graph.json
turbo run build test lint --graph=my-graph.pdf
turbo run build test lint --graph=my-graph.png
turbo run build test lint --graph=my-graph.html

Known Bug: All possible pipeline task nodes will be added to the graph at the moment, even if that pipeline task does not actually exist in a given workspace. This has no impact on execution, it means that 1) the terminal output may overstate the number of workspaces in which a task is running and 2) your dot viz graph may contain additional nodes that represents tasks that do not exist.

--force

Ignore existing cached artifacts and forcibly re-execute all tasks (overwriting artifacts that overlap)

turbo run build --force

The same behavior also be set via the TURBO_FORCE=true environment variable.

--global-deps

Specify glob of global filesystem dependencies to be hashed. Useful for .env and files in the root directory that impact multiple packages/apps. Can be specified multiple times.

turbo run build --global-deps=".env.*" --global-deps=".eslintrc" --global-deps="jest.config.js"

You can also specify these in your turbo configuration as globalDependencies key.

--ignore

type: string[]

Ignore files or directories from impacting scope. Uses glob patterns under the hood.

turbo run build --ignore="apps/**/*"
turbo run build --ignore="packages/**/*"
turbo run build --ignore="packages/**/*" --ignore="\!/packages/not-this-one/**/*"
How multiple patterns work

Positive patterns (e.g. foo or *) add to the results, while negative patterns (e.g. !foo) subtract from the results.

Therefore a lone negation (e.g. ['!foo']) will never match anything – use ['*', '!foo'] instead.

Globbing patterns

Just a quick overview.

  • * matches any number of characters, but not /
  • ? matches a single character, but not /
  • ** matches any number of characters, including /, as long as it's the only thing in a path part
  • {} allows for a comma-separated list of "or" expressions
  • ! at the beginning of a pattern will negate the match

--include-dependencies

--include-dependencies is deprecated in 1.2.x. Please use --filter instead.

Default false. When true, turbo will add any workspaces that the workspaces in the current execution depend on (i.e. those declared in dependencies or devDependencies).

This is useful when using --filter in CI as it guarantees that every dependency needed for the execution is actually executed.

--no-cache

Default false. Do not cache results of the task. This is useful for watch commands like next dev or react-scripts start.

turbo run build --no-cache
turbo run dev --parallel --no-cache

--output-logs

type: string

Set type of output logging. Defaults to "outputMode" for the task in turbo.json.

optiondescription
fullThis is the default. Displays all output
hash-onlyShow only the hashes of the tasks
new-onlyOnly show output from cache misses
noneHides all task output

Example

turbo run build --output-logs=full
turbo run build --output-logs=new-only

--only

Default false. Restricts execution to include specified tasks only. This is very similar to how lerna and pnpm run tasks by default.

Given this pipeline in turbo.json:

{
  "$schema": "https://turborepo.org/schema.json",
  "pipeline": {
    "build": {
      "dependsOn": [
        "^build"
      ]
    },
    "test": {
      "dependsOn": [
        "^build"
      ]
    }
  }
}
turbo run test --only

Will execute only the test tasks in each workspace. It will not build.

--parallel

Default false. Run commands in parallel across workspaces and ignore the dependency graph. This is useful for developing with live reloading.

turbo run lint --parallel --no-cache
turbo run dev --parallel --no-cache

--remote-only

Default false. Ignore the local filesystem cache for all tasks. Only allow reading and caching artifacts using the remote cache.

turbo run build --remote-only

The same behavior can also be set via the TURBO_REMOTE_ONLY=true environment variable.

--scope

--scope is deprecated in 1.2.x. Please use --filter instead.

type: string[]

Specify/filter workspaces to act as entry points for execution. Globs against package.json name field (and not the file system.)

turbo run lint --scope="@example/**"
turbo run dev --parallel --scope="@example/a" --scope="@example/b" --no-cache --no-deps

--serial

serial is deprecated in 0.5.3.Please use --concurrency=1 instead.

Executes all tasks serially (i.e. one-at-a-time).

turbo run build --serial

--since

--since is deprecated in 1.2.x. Please use --filter instead.

Filter execution based on which workspaces have changed since a merge-base.

turbo run build --since=origin/main

Important: This uses the git diff ${target_branch}... mechanism to identify which workspaces have changed. There is an assumption that all the input files for a workspace exist inside their respective workspace folders.

--token

A bearer token for remote caching. Useful for running in non-interactive shells (e.g. CI/CD) in combination with --team flags.

turbo run build --team=my-team --token=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

You can also set the value of the current token by setting an environment variable named TURBO_TOKEN. The flag will take precedence over the environment variable if both are present.

If you are using Remote Caching on Vercel and building your project on Vercel, this environment variable and flag are unnecessary because they are automatically set for you. Suppose you are using Remote Caching on Vercel but building in another CI provider like CircleCI or GitHub Actions. You can use a Vercel Personal Access Token as your --token or TURBO_TOKEN. If you are using a custom Remote Cache, this value will be used to send an HTTP Bearer token with requests to your custom Remote Cache.

--team

The slug of the remote cache team. Useful for running in non-interactive shells in combination with --token and --team flags.

turbo run build --team=my-team
turbo run build --team=my-team --token=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

You can also set the value of the current team by setting an environment variable named TURBO_TEAM. The flag will take precedence over the environment variable if both are present.

--preflight

Only applicable when remote artifact caching is configured. Enables sending a preflight request before every cache artifact and analytics request. The follow-up upload and download will follow redirects.

turbo run build --preflight

The same behavior can also be set via the TURBO_PREFLIGHT=true environment variable.

--trace

type: string

To view CPU trace, outputs the trace to the given file, use go tool trace [file].

Important: The trace viewer doesn't work under Windows Subsystem for Linux.

turbo run build --trace="<trace-file-name>"

--heap

type: string

To view heap trace, outputs the trace to the given file, use go tool pprof [file] and type top. You can also drop it into speedscope and use the left heavy or sandwich view modes.

turbo run build --heap="<heap-file-name>"

--cpuprofile

type: string

To view CPU profile, outputs the profile to the given file, drop the file into speedscope.

Important: The CPU profiler doesn't work under Windows Subsystem for Linux. The profiler has to be built for native Windows and run using the command prompt instead.

turbo run build --cpuprofile="<cpu-profile-file-name>"

-v, -vv, -vvv

To specify log level, use -v for Info, -vv for Debug and -vvv for Trace flags.

turbo run build -v
turbo run build -vv
turbo run build -vvv

turbo prune --scope=<target>

Generate a sparse/partial monorepo with a pruned lockfile for a target workspace.

This command is not yet implemented for npm or pnpm.

This command will generate folder called out with the following inside of it:

  • The full source code of all internal workspaces that are needed to build the target
  • A new pruned lockfile that only contains the pruned subset of the original root lockfile with the dependencies that are actually used by the workspaces in the pruned workspace.
  • A copy of the root package.json
.                                 # Folder full source code for all workspaces needed to build the target
├── package.json                  # The root `package.json`
├── packages
│   ├── ui
│   │   ├── package.json
│   │   ├── src
│   │   │   └── index.tsx
│   │   └── tsconfig.json
│   ├── shared
│   │   ├── package.json
│   │   ├── src
│   │   │   ├── __tests__
│   │   │   │   ├── sum.test.ts
│   │   │   │   └── tsconfig.json
│   │   │   ├── index.ts
│   │   │   └── sum.ts
│   │   └── tsconfig.json
│   └── frontend
│       ├── next-env.d.ts
│       ├── next.config.js
│       ├── package.json
│       ├── src
│       │   └── pages
│       │       └── index.tsx
│       └── tsconfig.json
└── yarn.lock                            # The pruned lockfile for all targets in the subworkspace

Options

--docker

type: boolean

Default to false. Passing this flag will alter the outputted folder with the pruned workspace to make it easier to use with Docker best practices / layer caching.

With the --docker flag. The prune command will generate folder called out with the following inside of it:

  • A folder json with the pruned workspace's package.jsons
  • A folder full with the pruned workspace's full source code, but only including the internal packages that are needed to build the target.
  • A new pruned lockfile that only contains the pruned subset of the original root lockfile with the dependencies that are actually used by the packages in the pruned workspace.
.
├── full                                # Folder full source code for all package needed to build the target
│   ├── package.json
│   └── packages
│       ├── ui
│       │   ├── package.json
│       │   ├── src
│       │   │   └── index.tsx
│       │   └── tsconfig.json
│       ├── shared
│       │   ├── package.json
│       │   ├── src
│       │   │   ├── __tests__
│       │   │   │   ├── sum.test.ts
│       │   │   │   └── tsconfig.json
│       │   │   ├── index.ts
│       │   │   └── sum.ts
│       │   └── tsconfig.json
│       └── frontend
│           ├── next-env.d.ts
│           ├── next.config.js
│           ├── package.json
│           ├── src
│           │   └── pages
│           │       └── index.tsx
│           └── tsconfig.json
├── json                                # Folder containing just package.jsons for all targets in the subworkspace
│   ├── package.json
│   └── packages
│       ├── ui
│       │   └── package.json
│       ├── shared
│       │   └── package.json
│       └── frontend
│           └── package.json
└── yarn.lock                           # The pruned lockfile for all targets in the subworkspace

turbo login

Connect machine to your Remote Cache provider. The default provider is Vercel.

Options

--url

type: string

Defaults to https://vercel.com.

--api

type: string

Defaults to https://vercel.com/api.

--sso-team

type: string

Connect to an sso-enabled Vercel team by providing your Team slug.

turbo login --sso-team=<team-slug>

turbo logout

Logs you out of your Vercel account.

turbo link

Link the current directory to Remote Cache scope. The selected owner (either a user or and organization) will be able to share cache artifacts through Remote Caching. You should run this command from the root of your monorepo.

Options

--api

type: string

Defaults to https://api.vercel.com

turbo unlink

Unlink the current directory from the Remote Cache.

turbo bin

Get the path to the turbo binary.

Last updated on September 22, 2022